Santa Fe, established in the early seventeenth century, boasted an estimated Spanish population of 2,500 by 1680. Over its history, the city has been capital of the Spanish Kingdom of New Mexico, the Mexican province of Nuevo México, the American territory of New Mexico (present-day Arizona and New Mexico), and the state of New Mexico. During these periods the interaction of the people with the government in the area that is now New Mexico has left a rich legacy of records, many of which survive in the Mexican Archives of New Mexico.
The materials in the collection vary but include records from the provincial administration, treasury, legislative, local government, judicial cases, military, Indian affairs, and some period newspapers. Lists in the hacienda, military, and miscellaneous record groups have been indexed; other record groups can be browsed by year and record group.
To aid in locating additional materials in this collection, there is a detailed finding aid, Calendar of the Mexican Archives of New Mexico, 1821–1846, by Myra Ellen Jenkins, that can be accessed here. Additional names may be found there by using the Find (Ctl+F) option in the PDF. Once you locate a name in the finding aid, note the year and record group, and you can browse to the record.
Government correspondence, while it may not mention your ancestor specifically, can add context to what you know about your ancestors and their lives in colonial New Mexico during these tumultuous years.